The geological basement of the Kupiškis land
The geological basement we live above is an important part of our environment. It determines features of land surface, soil types and properties, groundwater yield and quality as well as useful minerals, and all this affects human life conditions and peculiarities of economic activities, as well as cultural traditions. Geological investigation of Kupiškis area started in the 19th century. The crystalline core under the Kupiškis area is at about 900 m depth. The sedimentary layer is formed of Ediacaran, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian rocks, while the surface is covered by Quaternary, mainly glacial, formations, such as till clay loam, sand and gravel brought by glacier meltwater streams, as well as clay and aleurite settled in the ice-marginal lakes. During the post-glacial period, river valleys were formed with their deposits; the bogs, including Šepeta, had been formed in the relief depressions. The boulders make an important heritage of glacial era; there is a rather large collection of boulders in the Adomas Petrauskas museum. These large stones of different origin and age reflect the geological history of our land.