Structure of entrails of the Earth and features of surface in Naujamiestis environs

Valentinas Baltrūnas, Bronislavas Karmaza

The features of the entrails and surface of the Naujamiestis environs (Panevėžys district), and in some respects the wider region, are described. The structure of the entrails of the Earth largely determined the main features of the surface of the areas (soil type, hilly, valley), which in turn led to the distribution of different soil types, some geological resources, wetlands and woodland. All of this was of great importance for the settlement of the areas, the development of agriculture and animal husbandry, the use of local geological resources in construction, and the provision of drinking water. The described environs are located in one large geomorphological area - the Nevėžis Moraine Lowland. The evolution of the surface is related to the accumulation processes of the Baltija Stage and its Middle Lithuania Phase of the Last (Nemunas) Glaciation, also to the erosion and sedimentation of the Nevėžis River and its tributaries. According to the surrounding deep boreholes, the crystalline bedrock of our planet stretched to a depth of approximately 1100 – 1200 m, in the described Naujamiestis environs. Above it lies layers of marine and lagoon deposits of Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian periods. They are covered by Quaternary deposits (5-70 m thick) consisting largely of glacial till (morainic loam and sandy loam) with boulders. The entrails of the described areas are not yet characterized by solid mineral resources, more of them are in the next environs. The most valuable asset of the entrails is the groundwater currently in use 5 installed watering-places. Groundwater is largely derived from shaft wells. Surface-water, groundwater and soil, are endangered by the high concentration of places pollution in these areas. The environs of Naujamiestis are characterized by several valuable geotopes (boulders, outcrop) valuable for science and education, as well as the cultural heritage object in Upytė - Čičinskas Hill and Pit.